Recherche dans la librairie virtuelle

application/pdf [494,74 kB] - 01/03/2009 Improvement of cropping systems by integration of rice breeding: a novel genetic improvement strategy

[ Résumé ]

Rice improvement is based to an increasing extent on ever-sharper genetic analysis to the detriment of classical breeding, which is disappearing. Analytical genetics are very promising, but they cannot replace integrated and Wnalized breeding. Little attention has been paid to improving participatory rice breeding methods for subsequent integration into sustainable cropping systems. Special methodological initiatives are required to ensure the success of this breeding-agronomy integration. This integration of inexpensive breeding methods has increased the biodiversity of rice: low temperature and drought tolerant upland rice varieties for mountain areas, and polyvalent varieties, which have the ability to grow in both rainfed or irrigated conditions, they are perfectly adapted to improved cropping systems and to beneWciaries’ needs and preferences. These preliminary results on this integration demonstrate that the present approach is relevant.

application/pdf [1,54 MB] - 18/02/2009   Carbon balance and sequestration in no-till soils under intensive cropping systems in tropical agroecozones

[ Résumé ]

Four points to convince the farmers to adopt the DMC systems (SCV) in large scale :

  • Reduction of costs
  • Reduction of the risks with weather impact (drought)
  • Increase the yield of the main cash crop and the profitability of the whole system
  • Making extra money with C-sequestration and giving a good contribution to the environment.
application/pdf [1,16 MB] - 18/02/2009   Direct drilling is behind agronomy of opportunity in Tunisia.

[ Résumé ]

Tunisian climate is mediterranean, characterized by irregular, sudden, intense and
relatively low rain-fall. Land degradation is continuing, water resources are becoming scare,
and energy cost of farm products is continuously getting high. Consequently, cereal producers
can hardly make an economic return, while practicing conventional agriculture based on
conventional drilling (CD). Conservation agriculture based on direct drilling (CA/DD) gives
farmers a chance to protect soils and rebuilt their fertility for an efficient use of any available
form of water (rain-fall, irrigation). Such desirable efficiency does not come only by the use
of the appropriate crop species, but necessarily by reducing water evaporation. To do so, a
permanent mulching on the soil surface is the pivot of CA/DD. Since rain-fall fluctuates from
one year to another, crop sequences should parallel with such conditions. Some couloirs have
early rains (September-October) and late rains (May-June) too. In Bou-Salem (Governorate of
Gendouba), early and late rains accounted for 26.2 % and 19.9 % of the 07/08 total rain for
cereal growing season (September/07-June/08), respectively. These rains are not well
capitalized in cereal production, when applying conventional agriculture. So, coupling the site
specific approach and agronomy of opportunity is imperative to lift up farm productivity.
The climate (rain, heat) of production sites should be characterized to better define
growing seasons and make the appropriate agronomic sequence. Then, the agronomy of
opportunity (producing the maximum of biomass whenever the climate and the biology of the
desired crop are favorable) could be applied in different scenarios, under rain-fed and/or
irrigation conditions. There is no static scheme to crop the land, and it is rather a dynamic
management of soil, crops, and water. A particular emphasis should be put on use of strictly
seasonal (fall, winter, spring, summer) cereals and legumes in order to make a continuing
cropping with two-three crops a year. A potential scenario could be a fall-barley/springpeas/
summer short season-sorghum hybrid.

application/pdf [288,00 kB] - 08/02/2009   Conservation Agriculture Newsletter
application/pdf [2,79 MB] - 04/02/2009   Lessons learned from the extension of Direct Seeding, mulch-based Cropping systems (DMC) in Madagascar
application/pdf [2,38 MB] - 20/01/2009   From forest to cultivation, replanting high value forest tree species with a relay crop

[ Résumé ]

Document présenté au 1st Symposium of the “ Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêtnam”:
From forest to cultivation: Replanting high value forest tree species by using
Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) as relay crop.

Feeding the link between biodiversity reservoir and economic productionwill contribute to “give a value” to the biodiversity “information”and illustrate the fact that“a standing forest worth much more than a cut back one !”

application/pdf [980,24 kB] - 09/01/2009   A propos des SCV : pour une définition plus précise

[ Résumé ]

Note technique à propos de la définition du terme SCV et des usages

à propos des SCV …

- Justifications pour une définition plus précise et propositions

- Les voies du futur SCV

application/pdf [6,72 MB] - 08/01/2009   Rapport de mission au Cameroun

[ Résumé ]

Mission du 13 septembre au 24 septembre 2008 au Cameroun:CIRAD / AFD / SODECOTON

  1. Comment passer des TCS (Techniques culturales simplifiées) a ctuellement très largement dominantes, aux SCV.
  2. Rééquilibrer l’exploitation agricole des grandes unités de sol de la région Nord du Cameroun.
application/pdf [4,54 MB] - 30/12/2008   Initiation à la lecture des paysages morpho-pédologiques de Madagascar

[ Résumé ]

Formation des ingénieurs et techniciens des opérateurs du projet BVPI/SEHP.

Ce document est le résultat d’une mission de terrain de 18 jours effectuée du 24 octobre au
12 novembre 2008.La mission était demandée par le projet BVPI/SEHP (Projet de mise en valeur et deprotection de bassins-versants et de périmètres aménagés ou réhabilités dans les régions du Sud-Est et des Hauts-Plateaux). Le maître d’ouvrage en est le Ministère de l’Agriculture,de l’Elevage et de la Pêche. La cellule de maîtrise d’oeuvre déléguée, assurée par la société BRL, est basée à Antsirabe. Les bailleurs de fonds sont l’AFD et l’Etat malgache.L’objectif en était la formation des ingénieurs et techniciens malgaches des opérateurs du projet BVPI/SEHP à la lecture des paysages morpho-pédologiques et à l’identification des contraintes de divers ordres, sans les dissocier, qu’elles soient d’ordre géologique, géomorphologique, pédologique, hydrologique ou climatique.Le cursus des techniciens était le plus souvent Bac + 2 (enseignement agricole). Celui des ingénieurs était l’ESSA (agro de Tananarive).Trois grands terrains ont été parcourus : les Hauts-Plateaux (Vakinankaratra, région d’Ambositra), le Moyen-Ouest (Soavina, Ankazomiriotra, Mandoto) et le Sud-Est (de Manakara à Vangaindrano). Nous tenons à remercier chaleureusement les personnes qui nous ont aidés dans la préparation et la conduite de la mission :
- M. Eric Denis, Responsable de la Cellule BVPI/SEHP.
- M. Tahina Raharison, Responsable du volet Agroécologie à la Cellule BVPI.
- M. Andry Rakotoharivony, Responsable BVPI sur les Hauts-Plateaux de la production agricole et des ressources naturelles.
- M. Raymond Rabeson, pédologue, responsable du département agronomie au FOFIFA, et qui a activement participé à la formation les 29 et 30 octobre.
- M. Frank Enjalric, Responsable adjoint du GSDM.
Merci à tous les techniciens et ingénieurs des opérateurs SD-MAD, AVSF, FAFIALA, RAMILAMINA, BEST, qui ont intensément participé aux journées de terrain.

application/pdf [136,96 kB] - 04/12/2008   Le programme Pampa 2007-2011

[ Résumé ]

Pampa est une initiative MAE AFD FFEM avec un dispositif actuel étendu sur Madagascar /Océan indien, les Savanes africaines et les pays du Mékong. Sa stratégie est décrite dans ce document

application/pdf [2,10 MB] - 28/11/2008   Fiches techniques plantes de couverture / Vesce velue: Vicia villosa

[ Résumé ]

Tout ce que vous avez toujours voulu savoir sur l'utilisation de Vicia villosa comme plante de couverture est dans cette nouvelle fiche technique du GSDM à Madagascar.

application/pdf [2,68 MB] - 27/11/2008   Le contrôle du striga par les systèmes SCV

[ Résumé ]

Ce chapitre du manuel SCV en cours de rédaction à Madagascar décrit les moyens de contrôler le striga, plante parasite des cultures, grâce aux systèmes de culture SCV. Au sein des systèmes SCV la culture en associations de plantes piégeuses du striga (qui déclenchent sa germination mais ne sont pas parasitées), des températures du sol moindre, la meilleure fertilité du sol, les conditions globalement favorables au développement des parasites du striga permettent de contrôler ce parasite. Les systèmes SCV les plus intéressants en zones infestées sont décrits.

application/pdf [538,99 kB] - 02/11/2008   (poster) Adoption of conservation agriculture in Laos

[ Résumé ]

A case study in the Mekong Corridor

The results of these surveys show that there are currently more than 1,200 smallholders using DMC systems on a total of about 1,500 ha of cultivated land. Overall, the rates and levels of DMC systems’ adoption by smallholders appear more important in areas where the environment is the most degraded and/or particularly fragile (case of Nongphakbong village, Botene district).
In contrast, in less environmentally-degraded and less fragile areas, the level of DMC systems’ adoption is still rather limited. With more productive soils, mechanized mono-cropping can still provide high profits and, as such, retain the interest of a majority of farmers (case of Bouamlao village, Paklay district).

Currently, the main technical and socioeconomic constraints for a wide dissemination of DMC systems appear to be: 1) the credit and collection systems that have developed in southern Xayaboury province which continue to favour conventional, mechanized agriculture and prevent farmers from adopting technical alternatives, 2) lack of access to appropriate agricultural equipment,
and 3) poor communal land management (i.e. wildfires and grazing in dry seaason) which leads to the destruction of both crop residues and cover crops used in DMC systems.

With significant levels of crop diversification and engagement in off-farm or non-farm activities, livelihoods in general appear more diversified in the degraded and fragile areas. These trends can be considered as ‘risk avoidance’ strategies. By adopting DMC systems, smallholders attempt to avoid the environmental and economic risks associated with less sustainable systems
based on heavy mechanization and maize mono-cropping. In turn, by diversifying their livelihoods, smallholders attempt to limit their vulnerability to the potential failure of a single economic activity.